The Research that informs the Triple E Framework Evaluation of Educational Apps
The Triple E Framework Educational Application Evaluation is based on a considerable amount of research that has been conducted over the past decade about what works and does not work when it comes to designing applications for learning. In particular it emphasizes...
- Goal focused (Hirsk-Pasek, et al., 2015)
- Developmentally appropriate for age level (Guernsey, L. & Levine, M., 2012)
- Content is appropriate for the learning goal (Hirsk-Pasek, et al., 2015; Guernsey, L. & Levine, M., 2012)
- Content does not distract from learning goal (Kay & Lauricella, 2011; Wartella, 2015)
- Active learning (Hirsk-Pasek, et al., 2015)
- Social learning (Hirsk-Pasek, et al., 2015; Guernsey, L. & Levine, M., 2012; The American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013; Darling-Hammond et al., 2014; Vaala et al, 2015; Zach & Barr, 2016)
- Reflective practices (Hirsk-Pasek, et al., 2015; Guernsey, L. & Levine, M., 2012)
- The type of use--avoiding "drill and practice" which can have negative effects on learning outcomes and integrating more real world problem-solving and creating (Vaala et al., 2015)
- Developmentally appropriate feedback that is explicit, providing just right scaffolding (Hirsk-Pasek, et al., 2015; Guernsey, L. & Levine, M., 2012)
Research that informs the evaluation rubric
The American Academy of Pediatrics (2013). Children, adolescents, and the media. Pediatrics 132, 958–961. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2656
Darling-Hammond, L., Zielezinksi, M.B., & Goldman, S. (2014). Using Technology to Support At-Risk Students’ Learning. SCOPE. Retrieved: https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/scope-pub-using-technology-report.pdf
Guernsey, L. (2012). Can your preschooler learn anything from an iPad App? Slate. Retrieved: http://www.lisaguernsey.com/articles&volume=1&issue=can-preschoolers-learn-anything-from-an-app
Guernsey, L. & Levin, M. (2015). Tap, Click and Read: Growing Readers in a World of Screens. Jossey-Bass.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., Zosh, J., Golinkoff, R. M., Gray, J., Robb, M., & Kaufman, J. (2015). Putting education in educational apps: Lesson for the science of learning. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(1), 3-34.
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Periperal Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Okojie, M. C. P. O., Olinzock, A. A., & Okojie-Boulder, T. C. (2006). The pedagogy of technology integration. Journal of Technology Studies, 32(2), 66-71.
Price, L., Kirkwood, A. (2010). Technology enhanced learning: where’s the evidence? Proceedings ascilite Sydney 2010: Concise: Price & Kirkwood, 772. Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney10/procs/Price-concise.pdf
Vaala, S., Ly, A., & Levine, M. (2015). Getting a Read on the App Stores: A market scan and analysis of children’s literacy apps. Joan Ganz Cooney Center. Retrieved: http://www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/jgcc_gettingaread.pdf
Wartella, E. (2015). Educational apps: What we do and do not know. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(1), 1–2.
Zach, E., & Barr, R. (2016). The role of interactional quality in learning from touch screens during infancy: Context matters. Frontiers in Psychology. Retrieved: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01264
Zosh, J. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R.M., Gray, J., Robb. M., & Kaufman, J. (2013). Harnessing the science of learning to promote real educational apps: A proposed contribution for Psychological Science in the Public Interest.
Resources that inform the evaluation rubric
Act Online (focus on student data privacy)
iKeepSafe (focus on student data privacy)
Kidmap (focus on equity and diversity in apps)
Tap, Click and Read (focus on three C's of engagement)
E-AIMS Model from ScreenSense (focus on ages 2-6)
What Works Clearinghouse (focus on valid and reliable research)